Parinari curatellifolia!! Marked as invasive by:Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species

Invasive species Disclaimer

In view of the fact that some tree species are invasive, the world Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) has put in place a policy document on Invasive Alien Species, currently under draft available at Here.

For more information on this subject, please refer to
100 of the World's worst Invasive and Alien Species.




Species Index    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Multiple Criteria Search


Abelmoschus moschatus
Acacia aneura
Acacia angustissima
Acacia aulacocarpa
Acacia auriculiformis
Acacia catechu
Acacia cincinnata
Acacia crassicarpa
Acacia elatior
Acacia erioloba
Acacia etbaica
Acacia ferruginea
Acacia glauca
Acacia holosericea
Acacia karroo*
Acacia koa
Acacia laeta
Acacia lahai
Acacia leptocarpa
Acacia leucophloea
Acacia mangium
Acacia mearnsii*
Acacia melanoxylon
Acacia mellifera
Acacia nilotica subsp nilotica
Acacia pachycarpa
Acacia pennatula
Acacia polyacantha ssp. polyacantha
Acacia saligna
Acacia senegal
Acacia seyal
Acacia sieberiana
Acacia tortilis
Acacia xanthophloea
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius
Adansonia digitata
Adenanthera pavonina
Aegle marmelos
Afzelia africana
Afzelia quanzensis
Agathis macrophylla
Agathis philippinensis
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus excelsa
Ailanthus triphysa
Albizia adianthifolia
Albizia amara
Albizia anthelmintica
Albizia chinensis
Albizia coriaria
Albizia ferruginea
Albizia gummifera
Albizia julibrissin
Albizia lebbeck
Albizia odoratissima
Albizia procera
Albizia saman
Albizia versicolor
Albizia zygia
Aleurites moluccana
Allanblackia floribunda
Allanblackia stuhlmannii
Allanblackia ulugurensis
Alnus acuminata
Alnus cordata
Alnus japonica
Alnus nepalensis
Alnus rubra
Alphitonia zizyphoides
Alstonia boonei
Alstonia congensis
Alstonia scholaris
Altingia excelsa
Anacardium occidentale
Andira inermis
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona senegalensis
Annona squamosa
Anogeissus latifolia
Anthocephalus cadamba
Antiaris toxicaria
Antidesma bunius
Araucaria bidwillii
Araucaria cunninghamii
Arbutus unedo
Areca catechu
Arenga pinnata
Argania spinosa
Artemisia annua
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus camansi
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Artocarpus integer
Artocarpus lakoocha
Artocarpus mariannensis
Asimina triloba
Ateleia herbert-smithii
Aucomea klaineana
Averrhoa bilimbi
Averrhoa carambola
Azadirachta excelsa
Azadirachta indica
Azanza garckeana
Related Links
Parinari curatellifolia slash
© Joris de Wolf, Patrick Van Damme, Diego Van Meersschaut
Parinari curatellifolia leaves
© Joris de Wolf, Patrick Van Damme, Diego Van Meersschaut
Parinari curatellifolia tree
© Joris de Wolf, Patrick Van Damme, Diego Van Meersschaut
Parinari curatellifolia
© Anthony Njenga

Local names:
Afrikaans (grysappel), Bemba (mupundu), Chichewa (muula), English (hissing tree,mbola plum,mobola plum,fever tree), French (pobéguin,Mendonça), Lozi (mubula), Luganda (munazi), Lunda (mucha), Ndebele (umkhuna), Nyanja (mbula,mpundu), Portuguese (muchacha

Parinari curatellifolia is a large, evergreen, spreading tree up to 20 m tall with a single bare stem and a dense, roundish to mushroom-shaped crown; bark dark grey and rough; young shoots densely covered with yellow woolly hairs.

Leaves alternate, simple, elliptic to oblong, 3-8 x 2-4 cm, leathery, dark green on top, finely velvety when young but losing these hairs later, densely hairy and grey to yellow underside; apex broadly tapering, often notched; base square; margin entire; petiole short.

Flowers small, white and sweet scented, in short, branched heads or panicles, 4-6 cm in diameter, in leaf axils; stalks and calyces densely covered with yellowish, woolly hairs; bisexual; sepals 5; petals 5; stamens 7 or more, joined at the base in a short ring inserted in the mouth of the receptacle; ovary 2 chambered.

Fruit oval to round, up to 5 x 3.5 cm, russet-yellow to greyish, scaly and pitted, becoming orange-yellow when ripe.

Parinari is the vernacular name for a Brazilian species; the specific name means ‘with leaves like those of Curatella’, a West Indian and South American genus belonging to the Dilleniaceae family; often called the hissing tree because the bark makes a sort of hissing noise when cut with an axe.

Ecology

The sclerophyllous species is never truly gregarious; grows naturally in open, deciduous woodland, especially brachystegia woodland, extending to its upper limits and then scattered in upland grassland; often persisting in cultivated land and present in secondary bushland; Throughout the greater part of its range it is a species of woodland and wooded grassland, both edaphic and secondary; occurs in varying climatic regimes and is particularly common near rivers and in areas of poor drainage. It is sensitive to frost and cold wind. In Zambia it is often considered an indicator of a high watertable and is often left in fields. P. curatellifolia can tolerate small concentrations of copper in the soil.

Native range
Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zanzibar, Zimbabwe

Tree management

Transplanted into the field or garden after 2 years; care needs to be taken when transferring the seedlings because the taproot damages easily; young plants can be planted in groups of 10 or more, as they occur in nature, and must be watered until they are established; plants grow quite fast; coppice shoots are produced on felled trees. P. curatellifolia does not have an invasive root system, and root suckers are produced after root wounding.

Seed storage behaviour is orthodox; viability can be retained for over 2 years. There are 250-350 seeds/kg.

The sclerophyllous species is never truly gregarious; grows naturally in open, deciduous woodland, especially brachystegia woodland, extending to its upper limits and then scattered in upland grassland; often persisting in cultivated land and present in secondary bushland; Throughout the greater part of its range it is a species of woodland and wooded grassland, both edaphic and secondary; occurs in varying climatic regimes and is particularly common near rivers and in areas of poor drainage. It is sensitive to frost and cold wind. In Zambia it is often considered an indicator of a high watertable and is often left in fields. P. curatellifolia can tolerate small concentrations of copper in the soil.

The species regenerates naturally from seed, coppice and suckers; most of the trees and young regeneration seen in the field originate from root suckers. Seed lying on the ground is nearly always parasitized, so fresh seeds should be collected from the trees.

The seeds of P. curatellifolia rarely germinate artificially even with pretreatment, due most likely to its hard seed coat. If immersed in boiling water for 15 minutes, allowed to cool and then soaked for 24 hours the seed could still take up to 6 months to germinate. Potted stock raised in the nursery could be planted in the field where partial clearing has been carried out. Regeneration inducement from root suckers could be a feasible technique in areas where the species is semi-cultivated on farmland.

  The fruit has a pleasant tasting, yellow flesh of which 88.2% is carbohydrate; it contains vitamin C. The fruit may be eaten raw or made into a porridge. A delicious syrup is prepared from it that provides the basis of a refreshing, non-alcoholic drink. Seeds are pounded and used for making soup; they can also be eaten and make a passable substitute for almonds.

Game and cattle browse both leaves and fruits; the fruit is used as bait to trap animals such as antelopes.

Apiculture:  The tree produces abundant nectar and pollen, which makes it popular with honey farmers.

P. curatellifolia gives good charcoal.

Timber:  The wood is pink-brown in colour, with a featureless grain scored by many narrow pores, which show up well on the flat or tangential surfaces. It is hard and moderately heavy (720 kg/m³).  P. curatellifolia is borer proof and, although not durable if left exposed to weather, it has been used fairly extensively for rafters, beams, poles, benches, building mortars, railway sleepers, canoes and mine timber. However, it contains silica crystals that make it difficult to work, as they very rapidly blunt saw blades and other tools.

Shade or shelter:  P. curatellifolia is a neat, compact shade tree for the average garden.

Tannin or dyestuff:  An extract from the bark is used in tanning. A pink-brown dye used in basket work is extracted from the bark. Leaves are also used for dyeing.

Lipids:  Seed kernel has a high oil content (37.75%); it is used for paints, varnishes and printing and engraving inks.

Medicine:  A hot fomentation of the bark is used in the treatment of pneumonia. A leaf decoction is either drunk or used in a bath as a fever remedy. Crushed or pulped leaves are used in a dressing for fractures or dislocations, and for wounds, sores and cuts.

Ornamental:  A good tree to grow in orchards or in homegardens.

Soil improver:  The high content of cellulose limits the use of the oil cake. However, it could be used as manure.

Alcohol:  The fruits are made into an intoxicating liquor.